EMI - Definition, Understanding & Why EMI is Important?
01 Nov 2019
A loan is always taken for a specific purpose, be it a housing loan, an automobile loan, an education loan or a personal loan. Whenever a loan is taken it has to be returned to the lender. These repayments are done in a specific format where the amount is deducted from the borrower’s account on a particular day of every month. The amount so deducted is also pre-decided and depends on various factors. This standardised deduction in financial terms is called as Equated Monthly Instalment or EMI.
The value of the EMI depends on four main factors. These are the amount borrowed, the rate of interest to be charged on the amount borrowed and tenure for which the loan is borrowed and the type of loan fixed or floating. If the loan is a floating one then there is one more component that affects the EMI which is called ‘Rest’.
All other parameters being equal higher the principal amount borrowed higher will be the EMI. Similarly, a higher interest rate would mean higher EMI, all other things being constant. If the amount borrowed and the interest rate is constant then a higher tenure would mean lower EMI and a lower tenure would mean higher EMI.
In the case of both the fixed and floating interest rate loan, in the first EMI outgo, the interest rate component is the highest and the principal is the smallest. By the time the borrower reaches the last EMI, the interest component is the smallest and the principal is the maximum.
In case of a fixed interest loan, the EMI remains the same throughout the period of the loan. While in the case of a floating interest rate loan, the borrower has the option of reducing the EMI amount periodically as per change in the interest rate or allowing the EMI to be constant and the period to reduce.
The borrower has the option of part prepaying his loan. Whenever this happens the option available to him is to either ask the lender to reduce his EMI amount from the date of repayment or to let the EMI amount remain the same but reduce the period of the loan.
In the case of a housing loan, the interest and principal that is being paid through EMI, is summed up at the end of the financial year to calculate its impact on tax benefits that the borrower can avail of.
In case a borrower defaults on any EMI the lender will impose a penalty on the non-payment or late payment that was missed/delayed..
In the case of regular - non-payment of EMIs, lenders will be taking more severe action to recover their money and the CIBIL score of the borrower is adversely effected, resulting in adverse effect on credibility of borrower for future loans.
The good part about EMI is that the borrower knows exactly the amount that will be going out from his bank account and on which date it will be deducted. The lender also benefits knowing the cash flow that will be coming into his account every month.
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How to Remove Car Loan Hypothecation After Car Loan Repayment
A secured loan is a loan in which an asset is hypothecated to the lender. Since the lender finances the purchase of the asset, the original purchase papers of the asset are with the lender. When it comes to purchase of a home, the asset’s ownership shifts to the borrower once he has completely repaid the loan. In gold loans, the gold is left under lock and key with the lender. Once the loan is repaid, this gold is given back to the borrower. However, it is not the same when it comes to a car loan.
In a car loan, the car purchased is hypothecated to the lender. The lender pays the funds to purchase the car. However, a car also has to be registered with the Regional Transport Office (RTO) before it can be driven on the road. In such a case, the name of the lender appears on the registration certificate (RC) of the vehicle/ in the records of Regional Transport Office. This means you need to take a few additional steps once the car loan is repaid for car loan hypothecation removal. Once the car loan hypothecation is removed and the car’s ownership is completely in your name, then you will have a clear title and ownership to your car. This is especially important while getting insurance. In case anything happens to the car, the Insurance claim will go to the owner of the car, which in case of hypothecation, will be in favor of the lender.
This is why car loan hypothecation removal is important.
How to remove hypothecation from RC after car loan repayment/termination:
Step 1: Repayment of car loan
In the hypothecation agreement of car loan, the name of the lender appears as the owner for the car. To start the procedure for removal of the lender’s name, you need to repay the car loan completely. The loan must be paid off and a nil balance must appear in the lender’s books.
If you are planning to prepay your car loan, it is better to inquire with the lender about their prepayment charges and conditions. Sometimes lenders have prepayment charges on these loans and this can go up to 2%.
Once you’ve completely paid off the loan, you need a no dues certificate from the lender. This certificate will state that you have completely discharged the dues to the lender.
Step 2: Collection of documents from the lender
Once the loan is repaid, the lender will give you the no dues certificate. Along with this, you need to collect:
No objection certificate:
This certificate states that the lender does not have any objection with car loan hypothecation removal. One important point to remember is that you must take multiple copies of the No Objection certificate. This No Objection certificate will need to be submitted to the RTO and to the Insurance company. You will also need one copy for your own records. Usually, the no objection certificate is valid for 3 months. So, you must approach the RTO immediately after you get the no objection certificate.
This form is a notice of termination of hypothecation. This form also has to be made in triplicate or in 3 copies. Each state usually has its own format for this form which can easily be found online or at the RTO.
Step 2: Submission of documents to the RTO
Once you have the documents from the lender, you need to visit the Regional Transport Office or the RTO with a set of documents that includes:
Original form 35 signed and stamped by the borrower and bank
Original Bank No Objection Certificate
Attested copy of PAN
Attested copy of insurance policy of car
Original Registration Certificate
Copy of Pollution Under Control (PUC) certificate
These documents will have to be submitted to the RTO. If your address does not match the address in the registration certificate, you will need to submit Form 33 which is for change of address.
Once you submit these documents to the concerned officer at the RTO, they will get them verified. You need to pay the respective fees to get the process completed. The officer will give you a time and date on which you can collect your updated Registration Certificate (RC)
Step 3: Collect your updated Registration Certificate
The date and time for the visit will be specified when the documents are submitted. When you visit the RTO on the specified date, you will get the updated RC. If there are any mistakes in the details, you can get them corrected and collect the RC on a future date. Once you collect your updated RC, you will have completed all car loan hypothecation removal formalities.
What Is Overdraft Facility? All You Need To Know!
When you open a bank account, you are provided with a bouquet of financial services. The bank provides a cheque book and a passbook to help you manage and maintain your accounts. Furthermore, you are provided with an ATM cum debit card, net and mobile banking facilities and so on. The bank also offers a financial service known as the overdraft facility. But what is overdraft facility? Here’s all you need to know.
What is overdraft facility in bank?
Overdraft facility is a financial facility or instrument that enables you to withdraw money from your bank account (savings or current), even if you do not have any account balance.. Like any other credit facility, the bank levies an interest rate when you avail the overdraft facility. You typically have to pay a fixed interest rate to avail an overdraft limit.
What are the features of the overdraft facility?
Having explained what is overdraft limit, let’s find out its features. These are as under:
Banks offer overdraft facilities over a pre-determined limit, which may differ for every borrower.
Overdraft limit account is a running account in which you can deposit/ withdraw amount anytime up to the specified limit.
The bank levies the interest on the overdraft amount used by the borrower at predefined rate. The interest is calculated daily and billed/debited to your on monthly basis. The interest amount increases if you default on paying the due overdraft amount.
Unlike most loans wherein you have to pay a prepayment penalty for repaying the loan before tenure; banks so not levy any prepayment charges on overdraft limits. You can pay off the overdraft amount cumulatively without incurring any prepayment penalties.
You can repay the overdraft, in different amounts, whenever you have the money. The system of EMIs, which is prominent with most loans, does not exist in the case of overdraft limits.
While there is no minimum monthly repayment schedule in the case of overdraft loans, the amount owed by you should be within the overdraft limit.
Joint borrowers may avail overdraft limits. However, both the applicants are equally responsible for repaying the sanctioned Overdraft limit
Different types of collateral accepted by banks against overdraft loans
Overdrafts against your house or property
Overdrafts against your fixed deposits
Overdrafts against your life insurance policy
Overdrafts against your equity holdings
Overdrafts against your salary
Final word: As is evident, the overdraft facility is one that can truly help you when you need money. Banks also fix decent repayment tenures, so that you can repay the overdraft loan flexibly. However, before availing this facility from your bank, you must ensure that you find out the overdraft facility advantages and disadvantages and then proceed with the limit.