What is an EMI?

01 Nov 2019

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A loan is always taken for a specific purpose, be it a housing loan, an automobile loan, an education loan or a personal loan. Whenever a loan is taken it has to be returned to the lender. These repayments are done in a specific format where the amount is deducted from the borrower’s account on a particular day of every month. The amount so deducted is also pre-decided and depends on various factors. This standardised deduction in financial terms is called as Equated Monthly Instalment or EMI.

The value of the EMI depends on four main factors. These are the amount borrowed, the rate of interest to be charged on the amount borrowed and tenure for which the loan is borrowed and the type of loan fixed or floating. If the loan is a floating one then there is one more component that affects the EMI which is called ‘Rest’.

All other parameters being equal higher the principal amount borrowed higher will be the EMI. Similarly, a higher interest rate would mean higher EMI, all other things being constant. If the amount borrowed and the interest rate is constant then a higher tenure would mean lower EMI and a lower tenure would mean higher EMI.

In the case of both the fixed and floating interest rate loan, in the first EMI outgo, the interest rate component is the highest and the principal is the smallest. By the time the borrower reaches the last EMI, the interest component is the smallest and the principal is the maximum.

In case of a fixed interest loan, the EMI remains the same throughout the period of the loan. While in the case of a floating interest rate loan, the borrower has the option of reducing the EMI amount periodically as per change in the interest rate or allowing the EMI to be constant and the period to reduce.

The borrower has the option of part prepaying his loan. Whenever this happens the option available to him is to either ask the lender to reduce his EMI amount from the date of repayment or to let the EMI amount remain the same but reduce the period of the loan.

In the case of a housing loan, the interest and principal that is being paid through EMI, is summed up at the end of the financial year to calculate its impact on tax benefits that the borrower can avail of.

In case a borrower defaults on any EMI the lender will impose a penalty on the non-payment or late payment that was missed/delayed..

In the case of regular - non-payment of EMIs, lenders will be taking more severe action to recover their money and the CIBIL score of the borrower is adversely effected, resulting in adverse effect on credibility of borrower for future loans.

The good part about EMI is that the borrower knows exactly the amount that will be going out from his bank account and on which date it will be deducted. The lender also benefits knowing the cash flow that will be coming into his account every month.

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What Is A Personal Loan

A personal loan does not require the borrower to provide collateral and so it is an unsecured loan. The purpose or intention of a personal loan is to fund immediate financial contingencies. It could be for business capital, marriage, medical expenses or even foreign trips, though the end use of the capital really depends on the borrower, as long as it is for a legitimate financial need.
Eligibility for a personal loan?
Since these loans are unsecured- at what rate of interest you will get the loan and how much, whether or not you will get the loan-depend on the credit quality of the borrower. If you have good creditworthiness, you are likely to get the loan at an attractive rate of interest. If you have been a long time customer with the bank, with sound track record of financial discipline, you may also get a pre-approved personal loan sanction.
Bank of Baroda lists the following types of employees/self-employed individuals who are eligible for personal loans.

Employees of Central / State Govt. / Autonomous Bodies/ Public / Joint Sector Undertakings, Public Limited Co. / MNCs & Educational Institutions – with minimum continuous service for 1 year
Employees of Proprietorship, Partnership firms, Private Limited companies, Trust - with minimum continuous service for 1 year
Insurance Agents- doing business for minimum last -2- years
Self Employed Professionals (Doctor, Engineer, Architect, Interior Designers, Tech. and Management Consultants, Practicing Company secretaries etc) -- with minimum 1 year stable business.
Self Employed Business persons - with minimum 1 year stable business.

Some of the benefits of a personal loan are
Urgent financial requirement
If there is an immediate need for money, personal loans are the best option. They are considered better than credit cards or loans from family members or unorganized lenders, since the rate of interest is reasonable and the lender is a credible organization. Credit cards come with strict credit limits, which is not the case with personal loans. Funds taken from the bank as personal loan also resolve the issue of certain vendors not accepting payment through credit cards.
Breathing time for repayment
Also, the credit card bills need to be paid off by the due date which generally falls in the next month whereas you get some breather in repaying a personal loan EMI over a period of time, generally ranging from 3-4 years.
Flexibility of use
Funds from a personal loan are flexible in the way you use them. They can be used for several purposes- home renovation, travel, wedding and medical expenses or for any other purpose as per one’s personal obligations..
Loan amount
The loan amount you can borrow under a personal loan is also significant. For example, with Bank of Baroda offer personal loan amounts based on the eligibility of applicants
Confidential
Personal loans may also be private loans since these loans are often used to meet cash requirements or personal contingencies and thus kept private to a great extent.
Flexible repayment structure
These loans are generally of the nature of short to medium term loans and come with a flexible repayment structure.
Easy to get
For example, Bank of Baroda is popular for personal loans that are quick to get, fast processing, minimal documentation required and offered at attractive rate of interests. Most salaried persons, self-employed and professionals can apply for these personal loans.

What Is Overdraft Facility? All You Need To Know!

When you open a bank account, you are provided with a bouquet of financial services. The bank provides a cheque book and a passbook to help you manage and maintain your accounts. Furthermore, you are provided with an ATM cum debit card, net and mobile banking facilities and so on. The bank also offers a financial service known as the overdraft facility. But what is overdraft facility? Here’s all you need to know.
What is overdraft facility in bank?
Overdraft facility is a financial facility or instrument that enables you to withdraw money from your bank account (savings or current), even if you do not have any account balance.. Like any other credit facility, the bank levies an interest rate when you avail the overdraft facility. You typically have to pay a fixed interest rate to avail an overdraft limit.
What are the features of the overdraft facility?
Having explained what is overdraft limit, let’s find out its features. These are as under:

Banks offer overdraft facilities over a pre-determined limit, which may differ for every borrower.
Overdraft limit account is a running account in which you can deposit/ withdraw amount anytime up to the specified limit.
The bank levies the interest on the overdraft amount used by the borrower at predefined rate. The interest is calculated daily and billed/debited to your on monthly basis. The interest amount increases if you default on paying the due overdraft amount.
Unlike most loans wherein you have to pay a prepayment penalty for repaying the loan before tenure; banks so not levy any prepayment charges on overdraft limits. You can pay off the overdraft amount cumulatively without incurring any prepayment penalties.
You can repay the overdraft, in different amounts, whenever you have the money. The system of EMIs, which is prominent with most loans, does not exist in the case of overdraft limits.
While there is no minimum monthly repayment schedule in the case of overdraft loans, the amount owed by you should be within the overdraft limit.
Joint borrowers may avail overdraft limits. However, both the applicants are equally responsible for repaying the sanctioned Overdraft limit

Different types of collateral accepted by banks against overdraft loans

Overdrafts against your house or property
Overdrafts against your fixed deposits
Overdrafts against your life insurance policy
Overdrafts against your equity holdings
Overdrafts against your salary

Final word: As is evident, the overdraft facility is one that can truly help you when you need money. Banks also fix decent repayment tenures, so that you can repay the overdraft loan flexibly. However, before availing this facility from your bank, you must ensure that you find out the overdraft facility advantages and disadvantages and then proceed with the limit.

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