What Is Overdraft Facility? All You Need To Know!
15 May 2019
When you open a bank account, you are provided with a bouquet of financial services. The bank provides a cheque book and a passbook to help you manage and maintain your accounts. Furthermore, you are provided with an ATM cum debit card, net and mobile banking facilities and so on. The bank also offers a financial service known as the overdraft facility. But what is overdraft facility? Here’s all you need to know.
What is overdraft facility in bank?
Overdraft facility is a financial facility or instrument that enables you to withdraw money from your bank account (savings or current), even if you do not have any account balance.. Like any other credit facility, the bank levies an interest rate when you avail the overdraft facility. You typically have to pay a fixed interest rate to avail an overdraft limit.
What are the features of the overdraft facility?
Having explained what is overdraft limit, let’s find out its features. These are as under:
- Banks offer overdraft facilities over a pre-determined limit, which may differ for every borrower.
- Overdraft limit account is a running account in which you can deposit/ withdraw amount anytime up to the specified limit.
- The bank levies the interest on the overdraft amount used by the borrower at predefined rate. The interest is calculated daily and billed/debited to your on monthly basis. The interest amount increases if you default on paying the due overdraft amount.
- Unlike most loans wherein you have to pay a prepayment penalty for repaying the loan before tenure; banks so not levy any prepayment charges on overdraft limits. You can pay off the overdraft amount cumulatively without incurring any prepayment penalties.
- You can repay the overdraft, in different amounts, whenever you have the money. The system of EMIs, which is prominent with most loans, does not exist in the case of overdraft limits.
- While there is no minimum monthly repayment schedule in the case of overdraft loans, the amount owed by you should be within the overdraft limit.
- Joint borrowers may avail overdraft limits. However, both the applicants are equally responsible for repaying the sanctioned Overdraft limit
Different types of collateral accepted by banks against overdraft loans
- Overdrafts against your house or property
- Overdrafts against your fixed deposits
- Overdrafts against your life insurance policy
- Overdrafts against your equity holdings
- Overdrafts against your salary
Final word: As is evident, the overdraft facility is one that can truly help you when you need money. Banks also fix decent repayment tenures, so that you can repay the overdraft loan flexibly. However, before availing this facility from your bank, you must ensure that you find out the overdraft facility advantages and disadvantages and then proceed with the limit.
What is an EMI?
A loan is always taken for a specific purpose, be it a housing loan, an automobile loan, an education loan or a personal loan. Whenever a loan is taken it has to be returned to the lender. These repayments are done in a specific format where the amount is deducted from the borrower’s account on a particular day of every month. The amount so deducted is also pre-decided and depends on various factors. This standardised deduction in financial terms is called as Equated Monthly Instalment or EMI.
The value of the EMI depends on four main factors. These are the amount borrowed, the rate of interest to be charged on the amount borrowed and tenure for which the loan is borrowed and the type of loan fixed or floating. If the loan is a floating one then there is one more component that affects the EMI which is called ‘Rest’.
All other parameters being equal higher the principal amount borrowed higher will be the EMI. Similarly, a higher interest rate would mean higher EMI, all other things being constant. If the amount borrowed and the interest rate is constant then a higher tenure would mean lower EMI and a lower tenure would mean higher EMI.
In the case of both the fixed and floating interest rate loan, in the first EMI outgo, the interest rate component is the highest and the principal is the smallest. By the time the borrower reaches the last EMI, the interest component is the smallest and the principal is the maximum.
In case of a fixed interest loan, the EMI remains the same throughout the period of the loan. While in the case of a floating interest rate loan, the borrower has the option of reducing the EMI amount periodically as per change in the interest rate or allowing the EMI to be constant and the period to reduce.
The borrower has the option of part prepaying his loan. Whenever this happens the option available to him is to either ask the lender to reduce his EMI amount from the date of repayment or to let the EMI amount remain the same but reduce the period of the loan.
In the case of a housing loan, the interest and principal that is being paid through EMI, is summed up at the end of the financial year to calculate its impact on tax benefits that the borrower can avail of.
In case a borrower defaults on any EMI the lender will impose a penalty on the non-payment or late payment that was missed/delayed..
In the case of regular - non-payment of EMIs, lenders will be taking more severe action to recover their money and the CIBIL score of the borrower is adversely effected, resulting in adverse effect on credibility of borrower for future loans.
The good part about EMI is that the borrower knows exactly the amount that will be going out from his bank account and on which date it will be deducted. The lender also benefits knowing the cash flow that will be coming into his account every month.
What is the best age to go for a Home Loan?
Buying a home is a dream for every individual across the globe. The only problem is affordability. Buying a house needs to fit the budget. One’s dream need to be realistic in order to achieve it.
From a lender’s point of view a person becomes eligible for loan if he is earning a sufficient income from a legitimate source. He has to have a steady source of income and enough saving after taking care of the regular expenses and other loans as he has, to repay the equated monthly installments (EMI) of the home loan. These factors are known as creditworthiness of the borrower and credit behavior of a borrower is assessed in India by what is known as CIBIL score.
The CIBIL score takes into account the credit history of the person, whether he had defaulted on his loans earlier and similar other points.
Another point that comes up is age which decides the tenure of the loan that is relevant for purchasing a property.
Age in isolation is not a factor, what the lender would also like to look at is the earning and repayment capacity of the person, quality of the property he is planning to buy and the loan amount he is seeking.
Let’s take the case of a house property which is worth say Rs 75 lakh which includes all taxes and statutory charges. Assume that the lender is willing to fund 80 percent of the amount, which in our case is Rs 60 lakh.
Now, let’s consider three person aged 25, 35 and 45 who approach the lender for the loan on this property.
These days the younger generation gets a good starting salary especially if he has a good education or is a professional. In our case let’s consider an average individual.
Clearly, a 25 year old person can take the loan for the longest period possible, which in India can be around 30 years. The middle-aged person can be eligible for the loan for 20-25 years. The eldest individual will get a loan with a tenure of 10-15 years maximum. The lender would consider the useful working life of the borrower before fixing a tenure.
Lenders generally hesitate to lend a housing loan to an elder person. Part of the reason is the limited working life he has in front of him and secondly because his obligations increases with age. Children’s higher education needs to be funded, their marriage and medical cost associated with him and his spouse which can lead to cash flow mismatch going forward.
However, if the older person has a strong income stream and needs money for a shorter tenure, lenders would be interested in it. They may or may not ask for more collateral against the property since in a small tenure window price fluctuations can act as an added risk.
Or they may consider taking a higher down payment which would mean a lesser exposure and time risk for the lender.
Another way the older person can improve the chances of getting a loan is by applying for it with a co-borrower. This way the risk of the lender is reduced and there are more than one income stream to take care of the EMI payment.
There is no fixed and ideal age for taking a home loan. Finally what matters is the affordability. As a rule of thumb the EMI outgo should not exceed 30 percent of the income. Anything higher would put stress on the financials of the individual.
Financial markets in India have now matured offering an individual multiple avenues of raising money. Having said that, assets like a home is best bought as early as possible in one’s life since after this he can concentrate on wealth creation.