A loan is always taken for a specific purpose, be it a housing loan, an automobile loan, an education loan or a personal loan. Whenever a loan is taken it has to be returned to the lender. These repayments are done in a specific format where the amount is deducted from the borrower’s account on a particular day of every month. The amount so deducted is also pre-decided and depends on various factors. This standardised deduction in financial terms is called as Equated Monthly Instalment or EMI.
The value of the EMI depends on four main factors. These are the amount borrowed, the rate of interest to be charged on the amount borrowed and tenure for which the loan is borrowed and the type of loan fixed or floating. If the loan is a floating one then there is one more component that affects the EMI which is called ‘Rest’.
All other parameters being equal higher the principal amount borrowed higher will be the EMI. Similarly, a higher interest rate would mean higher EMI, all other things being constant. If the amount borrowed and the interest rate is constant then a higher tenure would mean lower EMI and a lower tenure would mean higher EMI.
In the case of both the fixed and floating interest rate loan, in the first EMI outgo, the interest rate component is the highest and the principal is the smallest. By the time the borrower reaches the last EMI, the interest component is the smallest and the principal is the maximum.
In case of a fixed interest loan, the EMI remains the same throughout the period of the loan. While in the case of a floating interest rate loan, the borrower has the option of reducing the EMI amount periodically as per change in the interest rate or allowing the EMI to be constant and the period to reduce.
The borrower has the option of part prepaying his loan. Whenever this happens the option available to him is to either ask the lender to reduce his EMI amount from the date of repayment or to let the EMI amount remain the same but reduce the period of the loan.
In the case of a housing loan, the interest and principal that is being paid through EMI, is summed up at the end of the financial year to calculate its impact on tax benefits that the borrower can avail of.
In case a borrower defaults on any EMI the lender will impose a penalty on the non-payment or late payment that was missed/delayed..
In the case of regular - non-payment of EMIs, lenders will be taking more severe action to recover their money and the CIBIL score of the borrower is adversely effected, resulting in adverse effect on credibility of borrower for future loans.
The good part about EMI is that the borrower knows exactly the amount that will be going out from his bank account and on which date it will be deducted. The lender also benefits knowing the cash flow that will be coming into his account every month.