What Is A Personal Loan

01 Nov 2019

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A personal loan does not require the borrower to provide collateral and so it is an unsecured loan. The purpose or intention of a personal loan is to fund immediate financial contingencies. It could be for business capital, marriage, medical expenses or even foreign trips, though the end use of the capital really depends on the borrower, as long as it is for a legitimate financial need.

Eligibility for a personal loan?

Since these loans are unsecured- at what rate of interest you will get the loan and how much, whether or not you will get the loan-depend on the credit quality of the borrower. If you have good creditworthiness, you are likely to get the loan at an attractive rate of interest. If you have been a long time customer with the bank, with sound track record of financial discipline, you may also get a pre-approved personal loan sanction.

Bank of Baroda lists the following types of employees/self-employed individuals who are eligible for personal loans.

  • Employees of Central / State Govt. / Autonomous Bodies/ Public / Joint Sector Undertakings, Public Limited Co. / MNCs & Educational Institutions – with minimum continuous service for 1 year
  • Employees of Proprietorship, Partnership firms, Private Limited companies, Trust - with minimum continuous service for 1 year
  • Insurance Agents- doing business for minimum last -2- years
  • Self Employed Professionals (Doctor, Engineer, Architect, Interior Designers, Tech. and Management Consultants, Practicing Company secretaries etc) -- with minimum 1 year stable business.
  • Self Employed Business persons - with minimum 1 year stable business.

Some of the benefits of a personal loan are

Urgent financial requirement

If there is an immediate need for money, personal loans are the best option. They are considered better than credit cards or loans from family members or unorganized lenders, since the rate of interest is reasonable and the lender is a credible organization. Credit cards come with strict credit limits, which is not the case with personal loans. Funds taken from the bank as personal loan also resolve the issue of certain vendors not accepting payment through credit cards.

Breathing time for repayment

Also, the credit card bills need to be paid off by the due date which generally falls in the next month whereas you get some breather in repaying a personal loan EMI over a period of time, generally ranging from 3-4 years.

Flexibility of use

Funds from a personal loan are flexible in the way you use them. They can be used for several purposes- home renovation, travel, wedding and medical expenses or for any other purpose as per one’s personal obligations..

Loan amount

The loan amount you can borrow under a personal loan is also significant. For example, with Bank of Baroda offer personal loan amounts based on the eligibility of applicants

Confidential

Personal loans may also be private loans since these loans are often used to meet cash requirements or personal contingencies and thus kept private to a great extent.

Flexible repayment structure

These loans are generally of the nature of short to medium term loans and come with a flexible repayment structure.

Easy to get

For example, Bank of Baroda is popular for personal loans that are quick to get, fast processing, minimal documentation required and offered at attractive rate of interests. Most salaried persons, self-employed and professionals can apply for these personal loans.

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The 3 Easy Steps to Calculate EMI on Personal Loan?

A personal loan does not require the borrower to provide collateral and so it is an unsecured loan. Since these are unsecured loans, the rate of interest on these loans are believed to be quite higher than all other types of loans. The purpose or intention of a personal loan is to fund immediate financial contingencies. It could either be for business capital, marriage, education or even foreign trips, though the end use of the loan really depends on the borrower, as long as it is for a legitimate financial need.
Before you apply for a Personal Loan, you may want to get down to the basics, to shop for the best offers on personal loans in the market. Among the most popular ones is the Bank of Baroda’s Personal loan product which apart from having the pedigree of belonging to one of the oldest and largest Indian banks, comes replete with some amazing features like flexible repayment options, affordable EMIs (Equated Monthly Instalments) that sit easy on your pocket and sizable loan amount among others in the category of personal loans.
Calculating the EMI on personal loans
The EMI calculations mainly rely on three variables- the loan term or the tenure of the loan, the loan value and the rate of interest. The rate of interest is one of the aspects that comes determined by the bank.
Calculating using the PMT formula
This is a longer, tedious and round about approach to calculating the EMI on your personal loan. Here, you can run the PMT formula on Microsoft Excel to calculate the EMI, where

PMT is your EMI,
NPER or number of periods is the total number of payments for the loan
PV is the loan value or the principal
Rate is the rate of interest/12
The formula is
PMT (Rate, NPER, pv).

You can keep trying the formula for various combinations and then choose the one with the lowest EMI, though this is a roundabout approach that could be prone to human error.
Online EMI Calculator
Or a far easier option to calculate the affordable EMI, is using, for example, Bank of Baroda’s online personal loan EMI calculator.
Here, you will find a slider on the range of each of the three basic variables on your screen- the loan amount you are likely to need, the tenure or the repayment period of the loan that suits your finances and the rate of interest.
Now, the rate of interest is what you get from the bank, while the other two aspects, i.e., the loan amount and the tenure of the loan are the ones you can play around with here.
When you place the cursor on a particular value of the loan term, rate of interest and loan amount, the calculator throws up a monthly payment value, which is your EMI. You can move the cursor horizontally along the range provided to pick the various values.
Here’s why using a Bank of Baroda personal loan EMI calculator works.
If EMI is too high

You can pick a longer loan term or
You can make the loan amount smaller.

If you find the EMI is affordable or even lower than ideal then you can plan to repay faster by either

Taking a larger loan value or
A shorter loan term.

What is an EMI?

A loan is always taken for a specific purpose, be it a housing loan, an automobile loan, an education loan or a personal loan. Whenever a loan is taken it has to be returned to the lender. These repayments are done in a specific format where the amount is deducted from the borrower’s account on a particular day of every month. The amount so deducted is also pre-decided and depends on various factors. This standardised deduction in financial terms is called as Equated Monthly Instalment or EMI.
The value of the EMI depends on four main factors. These are the amount borrowed, the rate of interest to be charged on the amount borrowed and tenure for which the loan is borrowed and the type of loan fixed or floating. If the loan is a floating one then there is one more component that affects the EMI which is called ‘Rest’.
All other parameters being equal higher the principal amount borrowed higher will be the EMI. Similarly, a higher interest rate would mean higher EMI, all other things being constant. If the amount borrowed and the interest rate is constant then a higher tenure would mean lower EMI and a lower tenure would mean higher EMI.
In the case of both the fixed and floating interest rate loan, in the first EMI outgo, the interest rate component is the highest and the principal is the smallest. By the time the borrower reaches the last EMI, the interest component is the smallest and the principal is the maximum.
In case of a fixed interest loan, the EMI remains the same throughout the period of the loan. While in the case of a floating interest rate loan, the borrower has the option of reducing the EMI amount periodically as per change in the interest rate or allowing the EMI to be constant and the period to reduce.
The borrower has the option of part prepaying his loan. Whenever this happens the option available to him is to either ask the lender to reduce his EMI amount from the date of repayment or to let the EMI amount remain the same but reduce the period of the loan.
In the case of a housing loan, the interest and principal that is being paid through EMI, is summed up at the end of the financial year to calculate its impact on tax benefits that the borrower can avail of.
In case a borrower defaults on any EMI the lender will impose a penalty on the non-payment or late payment that was missed/delayed..
In the case of regular - non-payment of EMIs, lenders will be taking more severe action to recover their money and the CIBIL score of the borrower is adversely effected, resulting in adverse effect on credibility of borrower for future loans.
The good part about EMI is that the borrower knows exactly the amount that will be going out from his bank account and on which date it will be deducted. The lender also benefits knowing the cash flow that will be coming into his account every month.

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